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In medicine, simulated VR surgical environments under the supervision of experts can provide effective and repeatable training at a low cost, allowing trainees to recognize and amend errors as they occur.[53] Virtual reality has been used in physical rehabilitation since the 2000s. Despite numerous studies conducted, good quality evidence of its efficacy compared to other rehabilitation methods without sophisticated and expensive equipment is lacking for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[54] A 2018 review on the effectiveness of mirror therapy by virtual reality and robotics for any type of pathology concluded in a similar way.[55] Another study was conducted that showed the potential for VR to promote mimicry and revealed the difference between neurotypical and autism spectrum disorder individuals in their response to a two-dimensional avatar.[56] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHUErvVAeIw&t=1s
To a degree, I’ve made it sound harder than it actually is since software has compensated for much of this, but these were some of the questions I was asking when I was first learning. I then started learning that some standard editing procedures could still be done. For example, I can still create image masks in 360°. So in truth, I still stood behind the camera the whole time along with others and gear and then masked myself out with a separate cut of footage showing the empty room. And for the motion graphics, (I use Adobe software) the software has built-in accommodations for editing and viewing in the 3D space so as to create accurate graphics. So in truth, once I learned, it wasn’t that hard, but boy is it time-consuming. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNbxXSOsmKs&t=1s
To create a feeling of immersion, special output devices are needed to display virtual worlds. Well-known formats include head-mounted displays or the CAVE. In order to convey a spatial impression, two images are generated and displayed from different perspectives (stereo projection). There are different technologies available to bring the respective image to the right eye. A distinction is made between active (e.g. shutter glasses) and passive technologies (e.g. polarizing filters or Infitec).[citation needed] https://www.aliexpress.com/item/Presale-Insta360-ONE-4K-360-VR-Video-Action-Camera-Sport-Camera-24MP-Bullet-Time-6-Axis/32831111466.html

This short film has been around for awhile but was recently recreated for VR by Arte Experience. After decades of steady sight deterioration, writer and theologian John Hull became totally blind. He began documenting his experiences on audio cassette which is how the film and this project were born. His original diary recordings form the basis of the six-part interactive non fiction project using gameplay mechanics and virtual reality to explore his emotional experience of blindness. It's an incredibly fascinating and moving experience that you can't miss.

Virtual reality (VR) is an experience taking place within simulated and immersive environments that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality can include entertainment (i.e. gaming) and educational purposes (i.e. medical or military training). Other, distinct types of VR style technology include augmented reality and mixed reality. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouqtjetglwI&t=1s
The Oculus Rift was the first big name in the current wave of VR, and Oculus is still a major player. The Rift S has a higher resolution than the Vive (but not as high as the Vive Pro or, strangely, the Oculus Quest) and newer and lighter Oculus Touch motion controllers, and doesn't need external sensors to work. It does, however, need DisplayPort; if your PC only has an HDMI output, you might want to hunt for the previous Rift and deal with the extra cables.
In 1999, entrepreneur Philip Rosedale formed Linden Lab with an initial focus on the development of VR hardware. In its earliest form, the company struggled to produce a commercial version of "The Rig", which was realized in prototype form as a clunky steel contraption with several computer monitors that users could wear on their shoulders. The concept was later adapted into the personal computer-based, 3D virtual world program Second Life.[23] https://www.aliexpress.com/item/New-Style-Camera-360-4k-360-degree-Panoramic-VR-Camera-Build-in-WiFi-Mini-Sports-Action/32702459981.html
The Oculus Rift was the first big name in the current wave of VR, and Oculus is still a major player. The Rift S has a higher resolution than the Vive (but not as high as the Vive Pro or, strangely, the Oculus Quest) and newer and lighter Oculus Touch motion controllers, and doesn't need external sensors to work. It does, however, need DisplayPort; if your PC only has an HDMI output, you might want to hunt for the previous Rift and deal with the extra cables. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LU6r78pDLDw&t=1s
This is more difficult than it sounds, since our senses and brains are evolved to provide us with a finely synchronised and mediated experience. If anything is even a little off we can usually tell. This is where you’ll hear terms such as immersiveness  and realism enter the conversation. These issues that divide convincing or enjoyable virtual reality experiences from jarring or unpleasant ones are partly technical and partly conceptual. Virtual reality technology needs to take our physiology into account. For example, the human visual field does not look like a video frame. We have (more or less) 180 degrees of vision and although you are not always consciously aware of your peripheral vision, if it were gone you’d notice. Similarly when what your eyes and the vestibular system in your ears tell you are in conflict it can cause motion sickness. Which is what happens to some people on boats or when they read while in a car.
Daydream comes with a 3DoF (degrees of freedom) controller and supports most smartphones, but the quality of VR will vary depending on the phone you're slotting in there. While the quality of games can't compete with the big names, the Daydream platform has consolidated over the past year with a respectable lineup – including Wareable favourite Keep Talking & Nobody Explodes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7X6XAbRfk6c&t=1s
The Vuzix Blade are the first Mixed Reality glasses to look like, well, glasses. A close cousin of the “Buddy Holly” style or those 3D spectacles you get at the movie theater, Vuzix Blade moves many core smartphone features from the touchscreen to in front of your face. Thing Uber ordering, GPS, fitness tracking, weather updates, messages, and more. Vuzix Blade is compatible with iOS and Android devices, and will set you back a cool $999. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyKa1YNZLio6XfjMR7fw45Q

The two images are then stitched together on the computer just after import. The stitched image (looks like the thumbnail for the above video) is called “equirectangular” format and looks like all 360° got compressed into a single 16:9 frame. Viewers and websites such as YouTube and Vimeo can detect this kind of footage in the file metadata and display it in VR form. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3VBuU-Ywv1qJGXLk05R-Dg


The Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), first introduced in 1994, was intended for the development of "virtual worlds" without dependency on headsets.[43] The Web3D consortium was subsequently founded in 1997 for the development of industry standards for web-based 3D graphics. The consortium subsequently developed X3D from the VRML framework as an archival, open-source standard for web-based distribution of VR content.[44] WebVR is an experimental JavaScript application programming interface (API) that provides support for various virtual reality devices, such as the HTC Vive, Oculus Rift, Google Cardboard or OSVR, in a web browser.[45] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_gt4lhlfqjc&t=1s

The PlayStation VR is compelling thanks to Sony backing development for it and the affordability and availability of the PlayStation 4 compared with gaming PCs. All you need is the headset, a PlayStation 4, and a PlayStation Camera (now included with most PlayStation VR bundles). There are some excellent games on PS VR like Moss, Rez Infinite, and Until Dawn: Rush of Blood, with Sony and other developers working on several more (including Five Nights at Freddy's VR). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ieIar09dRk&t=1s
Vive's Tracker might not look like much, but stick it on something and that "thing" becomes a controller. Yes, HTC is redefining how we think of mixed reality with this accessory, and now anyone can buy one. Developers have been busily finding exciting and unique ways to use the Tracker in games, which will require mounts for certain props, like guns and baseball bats.

In Virtual Reality, the computer uses similar sensors and math. However, rather than locating a real camera within a physical environment, the position of the user’s eyes are located within the simulated environment. If the user’s head turns, the graphics react accordingly. Rather than compositing virtual objects and a real scene, VR technology creates a convincing, interactive world for the user. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTFe95oFnDM&t=1s


Modern VR headsets now fit under one of three categories: Mobile, tethered, or standalone. Mobile headsets are shells with lenses into which you place your smartphone. The lenses separate the screen into two images for your eyes, turning your smartphone into a VR device. Mobile headsets like the Samsung Gear VR and the Google Daydream View are relatively inexpensive at around $100, and because all of the processing is done on your phone, you don't need to connect any wires to the headset. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bzzzo2XhuE&t=1s
This seems simple enough in theory (simple is relative), but in practice, shooting in 360° requires a whole new mindset. Typically, when shooting a video, I would just stand behind the camera. But with 360° video, I’d be in the shot no matter where I stand. How can I light my model with studio lights, if the studio lights would also always be in the shot? How do I capture audio? How do I do camera movements? These are all questions that have to have a solution.
Sony’s entry into the market is the lowest powered of the three best-selling VR HMDs, but the PSVR has a big advantage over the Rift and Vive. Because it’s tethered to the Playstation 4 gaming system, there was an enormous, pre-existing user base of 10s of millions of gamers, many of whom were eager to try their hand at VR. Because that user base already had a PS4, Sony’s customers didn’t have to purchase/upgrade their computer hardware, making the PSVR the most “affordable” of the high-end HMDs. As such, the PSVR is the best-selling Virtual Reality HMD on the market, moving over 4 million units since its initial release, and showing that, if nothing else, VR gaming is here to stay. https://www.aliexpress.com/item/Insta360-Nano-S-4K-360-VR-Video-Panoramic-Camera-20MP-photos-for-iphone-X-iPhone-8/32888150076.html

Desktop-based virtual reality involves displaying a 3D virtual world on a regular desktop display without use of any specialized positional tracking equipment. Many modern first-person video games can be used as an example, using various triggers, responsive characters, and other such interactive devices to make the user feel as though they are in a virtual world. A common criticism of this form of immersion is that there is no sense of peripheral vision, limiting the user's ability to know what is happening around them. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJ6a-pCgDH0&t=1s
Although much more time and data intensive, I do foresee 360° and VR as being a growing trend of the future. I think the tools and software will continue to improve and the real world applications will start to become more obvious (i.e. behind-the-scenes where you could actually see everything, car cams so that every angle was captured, real estate videos, etc). I’m excited to continue learning about it and continue shooting on my 360° camera. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCt2-_WqSJnmt6lXNGA8RiPg
A virtual environment should provide the appropriate responses – in real time- as the person explores their surroundings. The problems arise when there is a delay between the person’s actions and system response or latency which then disrupts their experience. The person becomes aware that they are in an artificial environment and adjusts their behaviour accordingly which results in a stilted, mechanical form of interaction. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0yGdNEWdn0&t=1s
Visuals are delivered via an OLED display that offers 1,440 x 1,660 resolution per eye. There's also a built-in speaker with the option to plug in headphones for a more isolated experience. While the VR experience might be on par with those PC-powered headsets, it's still very good and a big step up from the Oculus Go. Games run nice and smooth, though the smartphone-like processing power does mean some titles can take slightly long to load up. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYtGSt7a-s8&t=1s
Details remain scarce on the Cosmos, which looks like it may attempt to bridge the quality gap between tethered and untethered headsets. The Cosmos will require tethering to another device, but it may not be limited to high-end gaming PCs. A VR headset that can tether to a smartphone? Interesting idea. The Vive Cosmos promises “crystal-clear graphics” thanks to a new pixel-packing process that aims to minimize screen door effect as much as possible. The HMD’s tracking system promises wide and accurate tracking, gesture controls, and a 6 Degrees of freedom (DOF) headset-and-controller setup. No word on price or release date for the Cosmos yet, but expect it sometime in the second half of 2019.

But the competition is closer than ever. Vive is also excellent (and still offers the best room scale), while the Sony PlayStation VR is a big seller thanks to its significantly lower price and the ubiquity of PlayStation 4 consoles ready to run it. There are now better standalone VR headsets too if you want a hassle-free route to the immersive realms. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1udaCG1JiWU&t=1s
Answering “what is virtual reality” in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or perform a series of actions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sBQM2atjrE&t=1s
Microsoft HoloLens is shaping up to be another formidable competitor in the HMD market. Unlike VR tech, Microsoft based their display on holographic technology. The original Hololens was more proof of concept than consumer device, and the recently announced Hololens 2 is again eschewing the public in favor of enterprise/government uses. The Hololens 2 will feature upgraded visuals, including a much-expanded field of view — music to fans of the original device, who settled on the limited FOV as the main drawback of the device. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCi-Pcc709EefbggMuGABWOA
Basically, these AR headsets have transparent lenses that let you look at your surroundings, instead of completely replacing your vision with a computer-generated image. They can still project images over whatever you're looking at, but those images are designed to complement and interact with the area around you. You can make a web browser pop up in the middle of a room, for instance, or watch animals run around your coffee table. It's fascinating technology that could hint at the future of computing.
HTC's Vive is a comprehensive package that includes a headset, two motion controllers, and two base stations for defining a "whole-room" VR area. It's technically impressive, and can track your movements in a 10-foot cube instead of just from your seat. It also includes a set of motion controllers more advanced than the PlayStation Move. PC-tethered VR systems like the Vive need plenty of power, with HTC recommending at least an Intel Core i5-4590 CPU and a GeForce GTX 970 GPU. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6aRkhlqWuE&t=1s

Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device. Heilig also developed what he referred to as the "Telesphere Mask" (patented in 1960). The patent application described the device as "a telescopic television apparatus for individual use...The spectator is given a complete sensation of reality, i.e. moving three dimensional images which may be in colour, with 100% peripheral vision, binaural sound, scents and air breezes."[6] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-WibA2c6jMA&t=1s
Oculus Rift and HTC Vive are always presented as the top VR headsets on the market but I find it had to find specifically what are the advantages and disadvantages of one over the other... For a gamer which offer the widest selection of game, the best selection of game, the best audio system, the best image quality, the most user-friendly interface etc.... https://www.aliexpress.com/item/Lazy-Mount-Double-V-Clip-Cell-Phones-Holder-Clamp-Flexible-Goose-neck-Black-A273/32664020995.html
In social sciences and psychology, virtual reality offers a cost-effective tool to study and replicate interactions in a controlled environment.[50] It can be used as a form of therapeutic intervention. For instance, there is the case of the virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), a form of exposure therapy for treating anxiety disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias.[51][52]
In 2016, HTC shipped its first units of the HTC Vive SteamVR headset.[40] This marked the first major commercial release of sensor-based tracking, allowing for free movement of users within a defined space.[41] A patent filed by Sony in 2017 showed they were developing a similar location tracking technology to the Vive for PlayStation VR, with the potential for the development of a wireless headset.[42] https://www.aliexpress.com/item/VR-360-HD-Security-Camera-wireless-WIFI-panoramic-Home-Security-Surveillance-System-960P-IP-Camera-Panorama/32859898895.html
There are few worse feelings than putting on a VR headset and having someone else's sweat drip down your face. That's why, if you're likely to be sharing your headset with others, we'd recommend some sort of cover. The company VR Cover does exactly what it suggests, selling covers for the Rift, Vive, Gear VR and Windows Mixed Reality headsets. You can get a couple of machine-washable covers or, if you prefer, some cheaper disposable ones. https://www.aliexpress.com/item/11-6-inch-convertible-laptops-360-degree-touch-screen-notebook-iTSOHOO-8GB-RAM-Metal-Golden-laptop/32949868064.html
Like the Go, you'll need the companion app on your smartphone to set the headset and the controllers up, but it doesn't take very long at all to do. Then you can start downloading apps, games and experiences from the app or through the headset and there's familiar titles here that have already popped up on the pricier Rift. So, Beat Saber, Thumper, Space Pirate Trainer, and Creed: Rise to Glory all make the cut. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8COaMKbNrX0&t=1s
The Oculus Quest costs twice as much as the Oculus Go, but it's well worth it. It has a more powerful Snapdragon 835 processor and a sharper OLED screen, but more importantly it offers full 6DOF motion tracking with dual motion controls. In fact, it uses the same Oculus Touch controllers as the Oculus Rift S. It's limited to Oculus' mobile software store, like the Oculus Go, so it won't provide the same selection as the PC-based Rift S and its much bigger Oculus Store. Still, there are already some very compelling experiences on it, like Beat Saber and Superhot VR, that make it well worth your attention. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sucKPk0znbM&t=1s

In 1979, Eric Howlett developed the Large Expanse, Extra Perspective (LEEP) optical system. The combined system created a stereoscopic image with a field of view wide enough to create a convincing sense of space. The users of the system have been impressed by the sensation of depth (field of view) in the scene and the corresponding realism. The original LEEP system was redesigned for NASA's Ames Research Center in 1985 for their first virtual reality installation, the VIEW (Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation) by Scott Fisher. The LEEP system provides the basis for most of the modern virtual reality headsets.[9] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rTM8vXtdIUA&t=1s
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